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Journal Articles Materials Horizons Year : 2023

Redox-active ions unlock substitutional doping in halide perovskites


Electrical doping of metal halide perovskites (MPHs) is a key step towards the use of this efficient and cost-effective semiconductor class in modern electronics. In this work, we demonstrate n-type doping of methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) by the postfabrication introduction of Sm2+. The ionic radius of the latter is similar to that of Pb2+ and can replace it without altering the perovskite crystal lattice. It s demonstrated that once incorporated, Sm2+ can act as a dopant by undergoing oxidation to Sm3+. This results in the release of a negative charge that n-dopes the material, resulting in an increase of conductivity of almost 3 orders of magnitude. Unlike substitution doping with heterovalent ions, furtive dopants do not require counterions to maintain charge neutrality with respect to the ions they replace and are thus more likely to be incorporated into the crystalline structure. The incorporation of the dopant throughout the material is evidenced by XPS and ToF-SIMS, while the XRD pattern shows no phase separation at low andmedium doping concentrations. A shift of the Fermi level towards a conduction energy of 0.52 eV confirms the doping to be n-type with a charge carrier density, calculated using the Mott–Schottky method, estimated to be nearly 1017 cm 3 for the most conductive samples. Variable-temperature conductivity experiments show that the dopant is only partially ionized at room temperature due to dopant freeze-out.
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Dates and versions

hal-04220325 , version 1 (27-09-2023)


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Zuzanna Molenda, Bastien Politi, Raphaël Clerc, Mamatimin Abbas, Sylvain Chambon, et al.. Redox-active ions unlock substitutional doping in halide perovskites. Materials Horizons, 2023, 10 (8), pp.2845-2853. ⟨10.1039/d3mh00663h⟩. ⟨hal-04220325⟩
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