Primordial and primary prevention of peri‐implant diseases: A systematic review and meta‐analysis - CONSulTANts des CES-Centres d'examens de santé Access content directly
Journal Articles Journal of Clinical Periodontology Year : 2023

Primordial and primary prevention of peri‐implant diseases: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Abstract

Abstract Aim This systematic review and meta‐analysis aims to assess the efficacy of risk factor control to prevent the occurrence of peri‐implant diseases (PIDs) in adult patients awaiting dental implant rehabilitation (primordial prevention) or in patients with dental implants surrounded by healthy peri‐implant tissues (primary prevention). Materials and Methods A literature search was performed without any time limit on different databases up to August 2022. Interventional and observational studies with at least 6 months of follow‐up were considered. The occurrence of peri‐implant mucositis and/or peri‐implantitis was the primary outcome. Pooled data analyses were performed using random effect models according to the type of risk factor and outcome. Results Overall, 48 studies were selected. None assessed the efficacy of primordial preventive interventions for PIDs. Indirect evidence on the primary prevention of PID indicated that diabetic patients with dental implants and good glycaemic control have a significantly lower risk of peri‐implantitis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03–0.96; I 2 : 0%), and lower marginal bone level (MBL) changes (OR = –0.36 mm; 95% CI: −0.65 to −0.07; I 2 : 95%) compared to diabetic patients with poor glycaemic control. Patients attending supportive periodontal/peri‐implant care (SPC) regularly have a lower risk of overall PIDs (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24–0.75; I 2 : 57%) and peri‐implantitis compared to irregular attendees. The risk of dental implant failure (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.50–9.45; I 2 : 0%) appears to be greater under irregular or no SPC than regular SPC. Implants sites with augmented peri‐implant keratinized mucosa (PIKM) show lower peri‐implant inflammation (SMD = –1.18; 95% CI: −1.85 to −0.51; I 2 : 69%) and lower MBL changes (MD = –0.25; 95% CI: −0.45 to −0.05; I 2 : 62%) compared to dental implants with PIKM deficiency. Studies on smoking cessation and oral hygiene behaviors were inconclusive. Conclusions Within the limitations of available evidence, the present findings indicate that in patients with diabetes, glycaemic control should be promoted to avoid peri‐implantitis development. The primary prevention of peri‐implantitis should involve regular SPC. PIKM augmentation procedures, where a PIKM deficiency exists, may favour the control of peri‐implant inflammation and the stability of MBL. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of smoking cessation and oral hygiene behaviours, as well as the implementation of standardized primordial and primary prevention protocols for PIDs.
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Dates and versions

hal-04467254 , version 1 (20-02-2024)

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Maria Clotilde Carra, Nicolas Blanc‐sylvestre, Alexandre Courtet, Philippe Bouchard. Primordial and primary prevention of peri‐implant diseases: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 2023, 50 (S26), pp.77-112. ⟨10.1111/jcpe.13790⟩. ⟨hal-04467254⟩
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