A. E. Hedin, &. J. Salah, &. J. Evans, &. C. Reber, L. G. Newton.'-n et al.,

D. C. Kayser, &. D. Alcaydé, ?. P. Bauer."-l.-cogger, and A. J. , JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, vol.85, issue.A9, pp.4658-4664, 1980.

, An Empirical Model of Quiet-Day Ionospheric Electric Fields at Middle and Low Latitudes

R. F. Woodman°, S. Ganguly6, P. Amayenc', R. A. Behnke6, C. Calderon' et al., Seasonally averaged quiet-day Fregion ionospberic E x B drift observations from the Millstone Hill, St. Santin, Arecibo, and Jicamarca incohérent scatter radars are used to produce a model of the middleand low-latitude electric field for solar minimum conditions. A function similar to an electrostatic poiential is fitted to the data to provide model values continuous in latitude, longitude, time of day, and day of the year. This model is intended to serve as a référence standard for applications requiring global knowledge of the mean electric field or requiring

, 14853. * Arecibo Observatory

. Peru, 214

, Indian Journal of Radio ? Space Physics, vol.10, pp.85-94, 1981.

, Electron Temperature Models for the F-Region ? Topside Ionosphere V K PANDE1' ? K K MAHAJAN Radio Science Division, vol.110, p.12

, The models are valid for low and midlatitudes and are based upon incoherent-scatter radar measurements of electren température I T,) and electron concentration (N,) at Arecibo and Millstone Hill. The models make use of the observed relationship between electron concentration and electron température in the F-region and between electron concentration and heat flux in the topside. Comparison of the model T, values with actual measurement shows reasonabie?greemcnt The IRI model, however. shows vast departures from actuai measurements. This is expected to be so since IRI gives an average height and latitudinal bebaviour of electron température and does not include effects of solar activity. season and day-to-day fluctuationq. -237 -COORDONNEES GEOGRAPHIQUES SIDI Emission: Saint-Santin, Ail the available modelling techniques for the ionosphericelectron températures are reviewed. Empirical models ofelectron température for heights between 200 and 1000 km for low and medium solar activity conditions are presented, vol.222, p.231, 0209.

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