M. Knip, R. Veijola, S. Virtanen, H. Hyoty, O. Vaarala et al., Environmental Triggers and Determinants of Type 1 Diabetes, Diabetes, vol.54, issue.Supplement 2, pp.125-161, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.54.suppl_2.S125

M. Kukko, T. Kimpimaki, A. Kupila, S. Korhonen, P. Kulmala et al., Signs of beta-cell autoimmunity and HLA-defined diabetes susceptibility in the Finnish population: the sib cohort from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study, Diabetologia, vol.46, issue.1, pp.65-70, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-002-0976-5

A. Green and C. Patterson, Trends in the incidence of childhood-onset diabetes in Europe 1989???1998, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.S3, pp.3-8, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00002950

E. The and . Group, Variation and trends in incidence of childhood diabetes in Europe. Eurodiab ace study group, Lancet, vol.355, pp.873-879, 2000.

A. Green, E. Gale, and C. Patterson, Incidence of childhood-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: the EURODIAB ACE study, The Lancet, vol.339, issue.8798, pp.905-914, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0140-6736(92)90938-Y

A. Casu, C. Pascutto, L. Bernardinelli, and M. Songini, Type 1 Diabetes Among Sardinian Children Is Increasing: The Sardinian diabetes register for children aged 0-14 years (1989-1999), Diabetes Care, vol.27, issue.7, pp.1623-1632, 1989.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.27.7.1623

A. Pundziute-lycka, G. Dahlquist, L. Nystrom, H. Arnqvist, E. Bjork et al., The incidence of Type I diabetes has not increased but shifted to a younger age at diagnosis in the 0???34 years group in Sweden 1983 to 1998, Diabetologia, vol.45, issue.6, pp.783-91, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-002-0845-2

C. Levy-marchal, C. Patterson, and A. Green, Variation by age group and seasonally at diagnosis of childhood IDDM in Europe, Diabetologia, vol.26, issue.7, pp.823-853, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00252407

M. Charkaluk, P. Czernichow, and C. Levy-marchal, Incidence data of childhood-onset type i diabetes in France during 1988-1997: The case for a shift toward younger age at onset, Pediatr Res, vol.52, pp.859-62, 2002.

G. Dahlquist and L. Mustonen, Analysis of 20 years of prospective registration of childhood onset diabetes time trends and birth cohort effects. Swedish childhood diabetes study group, Acta Paediatr, vol.89, pp.1231-1238, 2000.

F. Mauny, M. Grandmottet, C. Lestradet, J. Guitard, D. Crenn et al., Increasing trend of childhood Type 1 diabetes in Franche-Comt?? (France): Analysis of age and period effects from 1980 to 1998, European Journal of Epidemiology, vol.44, issue.1, pp.325-334, 1980.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.315.7110.713

E. Schoenle, M. Lang-muritano, S. Gschwend, J. Laimbacher, P. Mullis et al., Epidemiology of Type I diabetes mellitus in Switzerland: steep rise in incidence in under 5 year old children in the past decade, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.3, pp.286-295, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250051615

C. Lévy-marchal, L. Papoz, C. Doutreix, J. Froment, V. Voirin et al., Incidence of juvenile Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in France, Diabetologia, vol.22, issue.Suppl 1, pp.465-474, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00405107

J. Doutreix and C. Levy-marchal, Diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes in children: Data from the incidence registry, Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique, vol.44, issue.1, pp.90-96, 1996.

C. Levy-marchal, Evolution of the incidence of IDDM in childhood in France, Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique, vol.46, pp.157-63, 1998.

M. Charkaluk, Évolution de l'incidence du diabète insulino-dépendant de 0 à 20 ans en France de 1988 et 1997, Thèse, pp.1-39, 2002.

A. Valade, Incidence du diabète de type 1 chez l'enfant de moins de 15 ans en Aquitaine entre le 1 er janvier 1995 et le 31 décembre 2004, Thèse n° 3008 -Université Bordeaux 2 -UFR Sciences Médicales, pp.1-110

M. Karvonen, M. Viik-kajander, E. Moltchanova, I. Libman, R. Laporte et al., Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Mondiale (DiaMond) Project Group, Diabetes Care, vol.23, issue.10, pp.1516-1542, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.23.10.1516

D. The and . Group, Incidence and trends of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide 1990-1999, Diabet Med, vol.23, pp.857-66, 2006.

P. Onkamo, S. Vaananen, M. Karvonen, and J. Tuomilehto, Worldwide increase in incidence of Type I diabetes - the analysis of the data on published incidence trends, Diabetologia, vol.42, issue.12, pp.1395-403, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250051309

R. Hermann, A. Laine, R. Veijola, T. Vahlberg, S. Simell et al., The effect of HLA class II, insulin and CTLA4 gene regions on the development of humoral beta cell autoimmunity, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.9, pp.1766-75, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-005-1844-x

L. Nielsen, H. Mortensen, F. Chiarelli, R. Holl, P. Swift et al., Impact of IDDM2 on disease pathogenesis and progression in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: reduced insulin antibody titres and preserved beta cell function, Diabetologia, vol.16, issue.1, pp.71-75, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-005-0042-1

A. Steck, T. Bugawan, A. Valdes, L. Emery, A. Blair et al., Association of Non-HLA Genes With Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmunity, Diabetes, vol.54, issue.8, pp.2482-2488, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.54.8.2482

E. Sabbah, K. Savola, P. Kulmala, R. Veijola, P. Vahasalo et al., Diabetes-associated autoantibodies in relation to clinical characteristics and natural course in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The childhood diabetes in Finland study group, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.84, pp.1534-1543, 1999.

C. Levy-marchal, F. Dubois, M. Noel, J. Tichet, and P. Czernichow, Immunogenetic Determinants and Prediction of IDDM in French Schoolchildren, Diabetes, vol.44, issue.9, pp.1029-1061, 1995.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.44.9.1029

E. The, Study Group and the EURODIAB ACE Substudy 2 Study Group. Familial risk of type 1 diabetes in European children, Diabetologia, vol.41, pp.1151-1157, 1998.

M. Karvonen, J. Pitkaniemi, and J. Tuomilehto, The onset age of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children has become younger. The Finnish Childhood Diabetes Registry Group, Diabetes Care, vol.22, issue.7, pp.1066-70, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.7.1066

A. Pundziute-lycka, G. Dahlquist, B. Urbonaite, and R. Zalinkevicius, Time trend of childhood type 1 diabetes incidence in Lithuania and Sweden, 1983-2000, Acta Paediatrica, vol.23, issue.Suppl 3, pp.1519-1543, 1983.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb02640.x

J. Bach, The Effect of Infections on Susceptibility to Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.347, issue.12, pp.911-931, 2002.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMra020100

S. Virtanen, E. Laara, E. Hypponen, H. Reijonen, L. Rasanen et al., Cow's milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type 1 diabetes: a nested case-control study of siblings of children with diabetes. Childhood diabetes in Finland study group, Diabetes, vol.49, issue.6, pp.912-919, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.49.6.912

J. Wahlberg, O. Vaarala, and J. Ludvigsson, Dietary risk factors for the emergence of type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies in 2??-year-old Swedish children, British Journal of Nutrition, vol.14, issue.03, pp.603-611, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250050925

H. Gerstein, Cow's Milk Exposure and Type I Diabetes Mellitus: A critical overview of the clinical literature, Diabetes Care, vol.17, issue.1, pp.13-22, 1994.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.17.1.13

S. Virtanen, E. Hypponen, E. Laara, P. Vahasalo, P. Kulmala et al., Cow???s milk consumption, disease-associated autoantibodies and Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a follow-up study in siblings of diabetic children, Diabetic Medicine, vol.15, issue.9, pp.730-738, 1998.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199809)15:9<730::AID-DIA646>3.0.CO;2-C

A. Oyarzun, J. Santos, E. Carrasco, C. Albala, A. Salinas et al., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes with breast feeding and milk exposition, Rev Med Chil, vol.131, pp.865-72, 2003.

C. Levy-marchal, J. Karjalainen, F. Dubois, W. Karges, P. Czernichow et al., Antibodies Against Bovine Albumin and Other Diabetes Markers in French Children, Diabetes Care, vol.18, issue.8, pp.1089-94, 1995.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.18.8.1089

J. Norris, K. Barriga, G. Klingensmith, M. Hoffman, G. Eisenbarth et al., Timing of Initial Cereal Exposure in Infancy and Risk of Islet Autoimmunity, JAMA, vol.290, issue.13, pp.1713-1733, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.290.13.1713

A. Ziegler, S. Schmid, D. Huber, M. Hummel, and E. Bonifacio, Early Infant Feeding and Risk of Developing Type 1 Diabetes???Associated Autoantibodies, JAMA, vol.290, issue.13, pp.1721-1729, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.290.13.1721

S. Virtanen, M. Kenward, M. Erkkola, S. Kautiainen, C. Kronberg-kippila et al., Age at introduction of new foods and advanced beta cell autoimmunity in young children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, Diabetologia, vol.27, issue.7, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-006-0236-1

E. Hypponen, E. Laara, A. Reunanen, M. Jarvelin, and S. Virtanen, Surveillance épidémiologique du diabète de l'enfant ? Institut de veille sanitaire Intake of vitamin d and risk of type 1 diabetes: A birth-cohort study, Lancet, vol.40358, pp.521500-521503, 2001.

S. Nejentsev, J. Cooper, L. Godfrey, J. Howson, H. Rance et al., Analysis of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Sequence Variants in Type 1 Diabetes, Diabetes, vol.53, issue.10, pp.2709-2721, 2004.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.53.10.2709

H. Hyoty, M. Hiltunen, and M. Lonnrot, Enterovirus infections and insulin dependent diabetes mellitus???evidence for causality, Clinical and Diagnostic Virology, vol.9, issue.2-3, pp.77-84, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0928-0197(98)00007-5

H. Viskari, J. Ludvigsson, R. Uibo, L. Salur, D. Marciulionyte et al., Relationship between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus infections in different European populations: Results from the EPIVIR project, Journal of Medical Virology, vol.72, issue.4, pp.610-617, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/jmv.20033

J. Marttila, H. Hyoty, K. Nanto-salonen, O. Simell, and J. Ilonen, Epitopes recognized by CBV4 responding T cells: effect of type 1 diabetes and associated HLA-DR-DQ haplotypes, Virology, vol.319, issue.1, pp.27-35, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virol.2003.10.011

P. Ylipaasto, K. Klingel, A. Lindberg, T. Otonkoski, R. Kandolf et al., Enterovirus infection in human pancreatic islet cells, islet tropism in vivo and receptor involvement in cultured islet beta cells, Diabetologia, vol.47, issue.2, pp.225-264, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-003-1297-z

DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(68)92103-X

I. Murray-lyon, A. Eddleston, R. Williams, M. Brown, B. Hogbin et al., Treatment of multiple-hormoneproducing malignant islet-cell tumour with streptozotocin, Lancet, vol.2, pp.895-903, 1968.

T. Wilkin, The accelerator hypothesis: weight gain as the missing link between Type I and Type II diabetes, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.7, pp.914-936, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250100548

P. Betts, J. Mulligan, P. Ward, B. Smith, and T. Wilkin, Increasing body weight predicts the earlier onset of insulin-dependant diabetes in childhood: testing the 'accelerator hypothesis' (2), Diabetic Medicine, vol.26, issue.2, pp.144-51, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM200105033441801

D. Dabelea, D. Agostino, R. , J. Mayer-davis, E. Pettitt et al., Testing the Accelerator Hypothesis: Body size, ??-cell function, and age at onset of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.29, issue.2, pp.290-294, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.29.02.06.dc05-1339

S. Fourlanos, Insulin resistance in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: relation to obesity, Pediatric Diabetes, vol.24, issue.1, pp.3-4, 2005.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000111245.75752.C6

J. Porter and T. Barrett, Braking the Accelerator Hypothesis?, Diabetologia, vol.47, issue.2, pp.352-355, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-003-1291-5

F. Destefano, J. Mullooly, C. Okoro, R. Chen, S. Marcy et al., Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, PEDIATRICS, vol.108, issue.6, p.112, 2001.
DOI : 10.1542/peds.108.6.e112

A. Hviid, M. Stellfeld, J. Wohlfahrt, and M. Melbye, Childhood Vaccination and Type 1 Diabetes, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.350, issue.14, pp.1398-404, 2004.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa032665

M. Karvonen, Z. Cepaitis, and J. Tuomilehto, Association between type 1??diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: birth cohort study, BMJ, vol.318, issue.7192, pp.1169-72, 1999.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.318.7192.1169

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC27850/pdf

P. Bingley, I. Douek, C. Rogers, and E. Gale, Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of type 1 diabetes in childhood: prospective population based family study, BMJ, vol.321, issue.7258, pp.420-424, 2000.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.321.7258.420

L. Stene, P. Magnus, R. Lie, O. Sovik, and G. Joner, Birth weight and childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort study, BMJ, vol.322, issue.7291, pp.889-92, 2001.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.322.7291.889

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC30582/pdf

L. Stene, P. Magnus, R. Lie, O. Sovik, and G. Joner, Maternal and paternal age at delivery, birth order, and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort, BMJ, vol.323, issue.7309, p.369, 2001.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.323.7309.369

G. Dahlquist, C. Patterson, and G. Soltesz, Perinatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe. The EURODIAB Substudy 2 Study Group, Diabetes Care, vol.22, issue.10, pp.1698-702, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.10.1698

M. Hummel, M. Fuchtenbusch, M. Schenker, and A. Ziegler, No major association of breast-feeding, vaccinations, and childhood viral diseases with early islet autoimmunity in the German BABYDIAB Study, Diabetes Care, vol.23, issue.7, pp.969-74, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.23.7.969

I. Weets, D. Leeuw, I. , D. Caju, M. Rooman et al., The Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in the Age Group 0-39 Years Has Not Increased in Antwerp (Belgium) Between 1989 and 2000: Evidence for earlier disease manifestation, Diabetes Care, vol.25, issue.5, pp.840-846, 1989.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.25.5.840

C. Lévy-marchal, L. Papoz, C. Doutreix, J. Froment, V. Voirin et al., Clinical and Laboratory Features of Type 1 Diabetic Children at the Time of Diagnosis, Diabetic Medicine, vol.30, issue.3, pp.279-83, 1992.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.14.10.619

C. Levy-marchal, C. Patterson, and A. Green, Geographical variation of presentation at diagnosis of Type I diabetes in children: the EURODIAB Study, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.S3, pp.75-80, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00002958

M. Agus and J. Wolfsdorf, Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children, Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol.52, issue.4, pp.1147-63, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pcl.2005.03.006

D. Dunger, M. Sperling, C. Acerini, D. Bohn, D. Daneman et al., European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology/Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society Consensus Statement on Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Adolescents, PEDIATRICS, vol.113, issue.2, pp.133-173, 2004.
DOI : 10.1542/peds.113.2.e133

N. Blanc, N. Lucidarme, and N. Tubiana-rufi, Facteurs associ??s ?? l???acidoc??tose r??v??latrice du diab??te de l???enfant et ?? sa s??v??rit??, Archives de P??diatrie, vol.10, issue.4, pp.320-325, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0929-693X(03)00033-2

J. Komulainen, R. Lounamaa, M. Knip, E. Kaprio, and H. Akerblom, Ketoacidosis at the diagnosis of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus is related to poor residual beta cell function. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group., Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.75, issue.5, pp.410-415, 1996.
DOI : 10.1136/adc.75.5.410

A. Neu, A. Willasch, S. Ehehalt, R. Hub, and M. Ranke, Ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children - frequency and clinical presentation, Pediatric Diabetes, vol.141, issue.2, pp.77-81, 2003.
DOI : 10.1034/j.1399-5448.2001.20402.x

J. Rosenbauer, A. Icks, and G. Giani, Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of Severe Ketoacidosis at Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children in a North Rhine-Westphalian Region, Germany, Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.22, issue.8, pp.1137-1182, 2002.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.1.7

C. Smith, D. Firth, S. Bennett, C. Howard, and P. Chisholm, Ketoacidosis occurring in newly diagnosed and established diabetic children, Acta Paediatrica, vol.88, issue.5, pp.537-578, 1998.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2796.1989.tb01384.x

M. Quinn, A. Fleischman, B. Rosner, D. Nigrin, and J. Wolfsdorf, Characteristics at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children younger than 6 years, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.148, issue.3, pp.366-71, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.10.029

J. Curtis, T. To, S. Muirhead, E. Cummings, and D. Daneman, Recent Trends in Hospitalization for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Ontario Children, Diabetes Care, vol.25, issue.9, pp.1591-1597, 2002.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.25.9.1591

A. Hekkala, M. Knip, and R. Veijola, Ketoacidosis at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes in Children in Northern Finland: Temporal changes over 20 years, Diabetes Care, vol.30, issue.4, pp.861-867, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/dc06-2281

D. Dunger and J. Edge, Predicting Cerebral Edema during Diabetic Ketoacidosis, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.344, issue.4, pp.302-305, 2001.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM200101253440412

J. Davis, T. Surendran, S. Thompson, C. Corkey, and . Dka, Increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in children with diabetic ketoacidosis and femoral central venous lines, Ir Med J, vol.100, p.344, 2007.

N. Glaser, New perspectives on the pathogenesis of cerebral edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis in children, Pediatr Endocrinol Rev, vol.3, pp.379-86, 2006.

J. Ho, J. Mah, M. Hill, and D. Pacaud, Pediatric stroke associated with new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: case reports and review of the literature, Pediatric Diabetes, vol.32, issue.2, pp.116-137, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.85.3.947

J. Roberts, M. Vavilala, K. Schenkman, D. Shaw, L. Martin et al., Cerebral hyperemia and impaired cerebral autoregulation associated with diabetic ketoacidosis in critically ill children*, Critical Care Medicine, vol.34, issue.8, pp.2217-2240, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.CCM.0000227182.51591.21

J. Edge, M. Hawkins, D. Winter, and D. Dunger, The risk and outcome of cerebral oedema developing during diabetic ketoacidosis, Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.85, issue.1, pp.16-22, 2001.
DOI : 10.1136/adc.85.1.16

N. Tubiana-rufi, I. Thizon-de-gaulle, P. Czernichow, R. Patterson, I. Hansen et al., Hypothalamopituitary deficiency and precocious puberty following hyperhydration in diabetic ketoacidosis Resolution of severe sinus vein thrombosis with super selective thrombolysis in a pre-adolescent with diabetic ketoacidosis and a prothrombin gene mutation, Horm Res J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, vol.3720, pp.60-63, 1992.

J. Edge, R. Jakes, Y. Roy, M. Hawkins, D. Winter et al., The UK case???control study of cerebral oedema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis in children, Diabetologia, vol.89, issue.9, pp.2002-2011, 2006.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM198505023121803

J. Wolfsdorf, N. Glaser, and M. Sperling, Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: A consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association, Diabetes Care, vol.29, issue.5, pp.1150-1159, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/dc06-9909

N. Glaser, P. Barnett, I. Mccaslin, D. Nelson, J. Trainor et al., Risk Factors for Cerebral Edema in Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.344, issue.4, pp.264-273, 2001.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM200101253440404

J. Edge, M. Ford-adams, and D. Dunger, Causes of death in children with insulin dependent diabetes 1990-96, Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.81, issue.4, pp.318-341, 1999.
DOI : 10.1136/adc.81.4.318

M. Vanelli, G. Chiari, L. Ghizzoni, G. Costi, T. Giacalone et al., Effectiveness of a prevention program for diabetic ketoacidosis in children. An 8-year study in schools and private practices, Diabetes Care, vol.22, issue.1, pp.7-9, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.1.7

G. Dahlquist and B. Kallen, Mortality in Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A population-based study, Diabetes Care, vol.28, issue.10, pp.2384-2391, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.28.10.2384

S. Laing, M. Jones, A. Swerdlow, A. Burden, and W. Gatling, Psychosocial and Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Premature Death in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.28, issue.7, pp.1618-1641, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.28.7.1618

P. Mcnally, N. Raymond, M. Burden, P. Burton, J. Botha et al., Trends in mortality of childhood-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Leicestershire, Diabet Med, vol.12, pp.1940-1991961, 1995.

G. Pambianco, T. Costacou, D. Ellis, D. Becker, R. Klein et al., The 30-Year Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes Complications: The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study Experience, Diabetes, vol.55, issue.5, pp.1463-1472, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/db05-1423

T. Skrivarhaug, H. Bangstad, L. Stene, L. Sandvik, K. Hanssen et al., Long-term mortality in a nationwide cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetic patients in Norway, Diabetologia, vol.16, issue.8054, pp.298-305, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.314.7076.271

I. Waernbaum, G. Blohme, J. Ostman, G. Sundkvist, J. Eriksson et al., Excess mortality in incident cases of diabetes mellitus aged 15 to 34??years at diagnosis: a population-based study (DISS) in Sweden, Diabetologia, vol.81, issue.4, pp.653-662, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.313.7060.779

K. Asao, C. Sarti, T. Forsen, V. Hyttinen, R. Nishimura et al., Long-Term Mortality in Nationwide Cohorts of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Japan and Finland, Diabetes Care, vol.26, issue.7, pp.2037-2079, 2003.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.26.7.2037

T. Podar, A. Solntsev, A. Reunanen, B. Urbonaite, R. Zalinkevicius et al., Mortality in patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania: follow-up of nationwide cohorts, Diabetes Care, vol.23, issue.3, pp.290-294, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.23.3.290

N. White, P. Cleary, W. Dahms, D. Goldstein, J. Malone et al., Beneficial effects of intensive therapy of diabetes during adolescence: Outcomes after the conclusion of the diabetes control and complications trial (DCCT), J Pediatr, vol.139, pp.804-816, 2001.

J. Ludvigsson and S. Nordfeldt, Hypoglycaemia During Intensified Insulin Therapy of Children and Adolescents, Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.10, issue.Supplement, pp.159-66, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02374475

H. Mortensen and P. Hougaard, Comparison of Metabolic Control in a Cross-Sectional Study of 2,873 Children and Adolescents With IDDM from 18 Countries, Diabetes Care, vol.20, issue.5, pp.714-734, 1997.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.20.5.714

A. Rewers, H. Chase, T. Mackenzie, P. Walravens, M. Roback et al., Predictors of Acute Complications in Children With Type 1 Diabetes, JAMA, vol.287, issue.19, pp.2511-2519, 2002.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.287.19.2511

M. Rosilio, J. Cotton, M. Wieliczko, B. Gendrault, J. Carel et al., Factors Associated With Glycemic Control: A cross-sectional nationwide study in 2,579 French children with type 1 diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.21, issue.7, pp.1146-53, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.21.7.1146

V. Wagner, M. Grabert, and R. Holl, Severe hypoglycaemia, metabolic control and diabetes management in children with type 1 diabetes in the decade after the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial ? a large-scale multicentre study, European Journal of Pediatrics, vol.143, issue.2, pp.73-82, 2005.
DOI : 10.1515/JPEM.1999.12.1.31

C. Ryan and D. Becker, HYPOGLYCEMIA IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol.28, issue.4, pp.883-900, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0889-8529(05)70107-9

M. Beregszaszi, N. Tubiana-rufi, K. Benali, M. Noel, J. Bloch et al., Nocturnal hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Prevalence and risk factors, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.131, issue.1, pp.27-33, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3476(97)70121-5

V. Musey, J. Lee, R. Crawford, M. Klatka, D. Mcadams et al., Diabetes in Urban African-Americans. I. Cessation of Insulin Therapy Is the Major Precipitating Cause of Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Diabetes Care, vol.18, issue.4, pp.483-492, 1995.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.18.4.483

R. Hanas, F. Lindgren, and B. Lindblad, Diabetic ketoacidosis and cerebral oedema in Sweden?a 2-year paediatric population study, Diabetic Medicine, vol.28, issue.10, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1399-543X.2006.00156.x

M. Vanelli, F. Cerutti, F. Chiarelli, R. Lorini, and F. Meschi, Nationwide cross-sectional survey of 3560 children and adolescents with diabetes in Italy, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol.1, issue.Suppl4, pp.692-701, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s11892-001-0005-y

R. Holl, G. Lang, M. Grabert, E. Heinze, G. Lang et al., Diabetic retinopathy in pediatric patients with type-1 diabetes: Effect of diabetes duration, prepubertal and pubertal onset of diabetes, and metabolic control, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.132, issue.5, pp.790-794, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3476(98)70305-1

B. Weber, W. Burger, R. Hartmann, G. Hovener, R. Malchus et al., Risk factors for the development of retinopathy in children and adolescents with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, Diabetologia, vol.4, issue.1, pp.23-32, 1986.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.1.6.434

T. Skrivarhaug, D. Fosmark, L. Stene, H. Bangstad, L. Sandvik et al., Low cumulative incidence of proliferative retinopathy in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a 24-year follow-up study, Diabetologia, vol.70, issue.Suppl 2, pp.2281-90, 2006.
DOI : 10.1001/archopht.1989.01070010250031

P. Massin, A. Erginay, I. Mercat-caudal, S. Vol, N. Robert et al., Prevalence of??diabetic retinopathy in??children and??adolescents with type-1 diabetes attending summer camps in??France, Diabetes & Metabolism, vol.33, issue.4, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diabet.2007.03.004

C. Schultz, T. Konopelska-bahu, R. Dalton, T. Carroll, I. Stratton et al., Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes followed from diagnosis in a longitudinal study. Oxford Regional Prospective Study Group, Diabetes Care, vol.22, issue.3, pp.495-502, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.3.495

C. Levy-marchal, C. Sahler, M. Cahane, and P. Czernichow, Risk Factors for Microalbuminuria in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes, Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.47, issue.6, pp.613-633, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.47.7.1121

K. Raile, A. Galler, S. Hofer, A. Herbst, D. Dunstheimer et al., Diabetic nephropathy in 27,805 children, adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes: Effect of diabetes duration, HbA1c, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes onset and gender. Diabetes Care Do all prepubertal years of diabetes duration contribute equally to diabetes complications?, Diabetes Care, vol.12226, pp.561224-561233, 2003.

M. Jarvisalo, M. Raitakari, J. Toikka, A. Putto-laurila, R. Rontu et al., Endothelial Dysfunction and Increased Arterial Intima-Media Thickness in Children With Type 1 Diabetes, Circulation, vol.109, issue.14, pp.1750-1755, 2004.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000124725.46165.2C

A. Kershnar, S. Daniels, G. Imperatore, S. Palla, D. Petitti et al., Lipid abnormalities are prevalent in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: The search for diabetes in youth study, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.149, issue.3, pp.314-323, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.04.065

B. Rodriguez, W. Fujimoto, E. Mayer-davis, G. Imperatore, D. Williams et al., Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in U.S. Children and Adolescents With Diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, Diabetes Care, vol.29, issue.8, pp.1891-1897, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/dc06-0310

M. Jarvisalo, A. Putto-laurila, L. Jartti, T. Lehtimaki, T. Solakivi et al., Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Children With Type 1 Diabetes, Diabetes, vol.51, issue.2, pp.493-501, 2002.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.51.2.493

D. Pozza, R. Bechtold, S. Bonfig, W. Putzker, S. Kozlik-feldmann et al., Age of Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Carotid Intima Medial Thickness, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.92, issue.6, pp.2053-2060, 2007.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2006-2868

T. Elhadd, F. Khan, G. Kirk, M. Mclaren, R. Newton et al., Influence of puberty on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in young patients with type 1 diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.21, issue.11, pp.1990-1996, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.21.11.1990

K. Schwab, J. Doerfer, A. Krebs, K. Krebs, E. Schorb et al., Early atherosclerosis in childhood type 1 diabetes: role of raised systolic blood pressure in the absence of dyslipidaemia, European Journal of Pediatrics, vol.414, issue.Suppl 3, pp.541-549, 2007.
DOI : 10.1161/01.ATV.19.3.499

T. Singh, H. Groehn, and A. Kazmers, Vascular function and carotid intimal-medial thickness in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.41, issue.4, pp.661-666, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02894-2

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0735-1097(02)02894-2

C. Gay, F. Chapuis, N. Bendelac, F. Tixier, S. Treppoz et al., Reinforced follow-up for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and inadequate glycaemic control: a randomized controlled trial intervention via the local pharmacist and telecare, Diabetes & Metabolism, vol.32, issue.2, pp.159-65, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70263-X

K. Bryden, R. Peveler, A. Stein, A. Neil, R. Mayou et al., Clinical and Psychological Course of Diabetes From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: A longitudinal cohort study, Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.9, pp.1536-1576, 2001.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.24.9.1536

C. Ingberg, M. Palmer, J. Aman, and S. Larsson, Social Consequences of Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus are Limited: A Population-based Comparison of Young Adult Patients vs Healthy Controls, Diabetic Medicine, vol.13, issue.8, pp.729-762, 1996.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199608)13:8<729::AID-DIA147>3.0.CO;2-A

H. Hoey, H. Aanstoot, F. Chiarelli, D. Daneman, T. Danne et al., Good Metabolic Control Is Associated With Better Quality of Life in 2,101 Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.11, pp.1923-1931, 2001.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.24.11.1923

I. Muhlhauser, H. Overmann, R. Bender, V. Jorgens, and M. Berger, Predictors of mortality and end-stage diabetic complications in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensified insulin therapy, Diabetic Medicine, vol.237, issue.10, pp.727-761, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250050769

H. Mortensen, Findings from the hvidore study group on childhood diabetes. Metabolic control and quality of life, Horm Res, vol.57, issue.1, pp.117-137, 2002.

S. Crow, P. Keel, and D. Kendall, Eating Disorders and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Psychosomatics, vol.39, issue.3, pp.233-276, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0033-3182(98)71340-4

V. Grylli, A. Hafferl-gattermayer, G. Wagner, E. Schober, and A. Karwautz, Eating Disorders and Eating Problems Among Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes: Exploring Relationships With Temperament and Character, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol.30, issue.2, pp.197-206, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/jpepsy/jsi007

V. Grylli, G. Wagner, A. Hafferl-gattermayer, E. Schober, and A. Karwautz, Disturbed eating attitudes, coping styles, and subjective quality of life in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol.59, issue.2, pp.65-72, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.02.010

S. Kelly, C. Howe, J. Hendler, and T. Lipman, Disordered Eating Behaviors in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes, The Diabetes Educator, vol.149, issue.1, pp.572-83, 2005.
DOI : 10.1176/ajp.149.1.82

M. Pollock, M. Kovacs, and D. Charron-prochownik, Eating Disorders and Maladaptive Dietary/Insulin Management among Youths with Childhood-Onset Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.34, issue.3, pp.291-297, 1995.
DOI : 10.1097/00004583-199503000-00012

G. Rodin, J. Craven, C. Littlefield, M. Murray, and D. Daneman, Eating Disorders and Intentional Insulin Undertreatment in Adolescent Females With Diabetes, Psychosomatics, vol.32, issue.2, pp.171-177, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/S0033-3182(91)72088-4

R. Wing, M. Nowalk, M. Marcus, R. Koeske, and D. Finegold, subclinical Eating Disorders and Glycemic Control in Adolescents with Type I Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.9, issue.2, pp.162-169, 1986.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.9.2.162

G. Dahlquist and B. Kallen, School performance in children with type 1 diabetes???a population-based register study, Diabetologia, vol.9, issue.5, pp.957-64, 2007.
DOI : 10.1515/JPEM.1996.9.4.455

N. Tubiana-rufi, L. Moret, J. Chwalow, and P. Czernichow, Health and factors associated with glycemic control in 165 children with insulindependent diabetes, aged 7-23 year, Arch Pediatr, vol.1, pp.982-90, 1994.

C. De-beaufort, P. Swift, C. Skinner, H. Aanstoot, J. Aman et al., Continuing Stability of Center Differences in Pediatric Diabetes Care: Do Advances in Diabetes Treatment Improve Outcome?: The Hvidoere Study Group on Childhood Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.30, issue.9, pp.2245-50, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/dc07-0475

N. Tubiana-rufi, L. Moret, P. Czernichow, and J. Chwalow, Risk Factors for Poor Glycemic Control in Diabetic Children in France, Diabetes Care, vol.18, issue.11, pp.1479-82, 1995.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.18.11.1479

N. Tubiana-rufi, L. Moret, P. Czernichow, and J. Chwalow, The association of poor adherence and acute metabolic disorders with low levels of cohesion and adaptability in families with diabetic children, Acta Paediatrica, vol.1996, issue.7, pp.741-747, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.19.6.648

L. Laffel, A. Connell, L. Vangsness, A. Goebel-fabbri, A. Mansfield et al., General Quality of Life in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Relationship to patient management and diabetes-specific family conflict, Diabetes Care, vol.26, issue.11, pp.3067-73, 2003.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.26.11.3067

M. Grey, M. Davidson, E. Boland, and W. Tamborlane, Clinical and psychosocial factors associated with achievement of treatment goals in adolescents with diabetes mellitus, Journal of Adolescent Health, vol.28, issue.5, pp.377-85, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1054-139X(00)00211-1

M. Grey, E. Boland, C. Yu, S. Sullivan-bolyai, and W. Tamborlane, Personal and Family Factors Associated With Quality of Life in Adolescents With Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.21, issue.6, pp.909-923, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.21.6.909

I. Guttmann-bauman, B. Flaherty, M. Strugger, and R. Mcevoy, Metabolic Control and Quality-of-Life Self-Assessment in Adolescents With IDDM, Diabetes Care, vol.21, issue.6, pp.915-923, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.21.6.915

G. Ingersoll and D. Marrero, A Modified Quality-of-Life Measure for Youths: Psychometric Properties, The Diabetes Educator, vol.14, issue.2, pp.114-122, 1991.
DOI : 10.1177/014572178801400415

A. Icks, J. Rosenbauer, R. Holl, M. Grabert, W. Rathmann et al., Hospitalization Among Diabetic Children and Adolescents and the General Population in Germany, Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.3, pp.435-475, 2001.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.24.3.435

R. Holl, P. Swift, H. Mortensen, H. Lynggaard, P. Hougaard et al., Insulin injection regimens and metabolic control in an international survey of adolescents with type 1 diabetes over 3 years: results from the Hvidore study group, European Journal of Pediatrics, vol.162, issue.1, pp.22-31, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00431-002-1037-2

. American-diabetes-association, Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents American diabetes association, Diabetes Care, vol.23, pp.381-390, 2000.

A. Fagot-campagna, D. Pettitt, M. Engelgau, N. Burrows, L. Geiss et al., Type 2 diabetes among North adolescents: An epidemiologic health perspective, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.136, issue.5, pp.664-72, 2000.
DOI : 10.1067/mpd.2000.105141

R. Sinha, G. Fisch, B. Teague, W. Tamborlane, B. Banyas et al., Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance among Children and Adolescents with Marked Obesity, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.346, issue.11, pp.802-812, 2002.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa012578

O. Pinhas-hamiel, L. Dolan, S. Daniels, D. Standiford, P. Khoury et al., Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.128, issue.5, pp.608-623, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-3476(96)80124-7

A. Rosenbloom, J. Joe, R. Young, W. Winter, K. Moore et al., Emerging epidemic of type 2 diabetes in youth Three-year prevalence and incidence of diabetes among American Indian youth in Montana and Wyoming, Diabetes Care J Pediatr, vol.22143, issue.5, pp.345-54368, 1999.

A. Fagot-campagna, Emergence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children: Epidemiological Evidence, Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.13, issue.Supplement, pp.1395-402, 2000.
DOI : 10.1515/jpem-2000-s613

D. Dabelea, R. Hanson, P. Bennett, J. Roumain, W. Knowler et al., Increasing prevalence of Type II diabetes in American Indian children, Diabetologia, vol.41, issue.8, pp.904-914, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250051006

G. Duncan, Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose Levels Among US Adolescents, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol.160, issue.5, pp.523-531, 1999.
DOI : 10.1001/archpedi.160.5.523

A. Liese, D. Agostino, R. Jr, R. Hamman, P. Kilgo et al., The burden of diabetes mellitus among US youth: Prevalence estimates from the SEARCH for diabetes in youth study, Pediatrics, vol.118, pp.1510-1518, 2006.

S. Ehtisham, T. Barrett, and N. Shaw, Type 2 diabetes mellitus in UK children - an emerging problem, Diabetic Medicine, vol.43, issue.73, pp.867-71, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-8227(99)00003-0

E. Ortega-rodriguez, C. Levy-marchal, N. Tubiana, P. Czernichow, and M. Polak, Emergence of type 2 diabetes in an hospital based cohort of children with diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Metab, vol.27, pp.574-582, 2001.

S. Ehtisham, A. Hattersley, D. Dunger, and T. Barrett, First UK survey of paediatric type 2 diabetes and MODY, Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.89, issue.6, pp.526-535, 2004.
DOI : 10.1136/adc.2003.027821

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1719947

B. Rami, E. Schober, E. Nachbauer, and T. Waldhor, Type 2 diabetes mellitus is rare but not absent in children under 15 years of age in Austria, European Journal of Pediatrics, vol.162, issue.12, pp.850-852, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00431-003-1323-7

N. Tubiana-rufi, N. Szerman-nathan, E. Ramos, L. Bubuteishvili, D. Chevenne et al., Augmentation de l'incidence du diabète de type 2 dans une large cohorte pédiatrique française, Bulletin Épidémiologique Hebdomadaire, 2007.

O. Pinhas-hamiel and P. Zeitler, Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents, The Lancet, vol.369, issue.9575, pp.1823-1854, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60821-6

T. Urakami, S. Kubota, Y. Nitadori, K. Harada, M. Owada et al., Annual Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Type 2 Diabetes in Children as Detected by Urine Glucose Screening in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Diabetes Care, vol.28, issue.8, pp.1876-81, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.28.8.1876

L. Haines, K. Wan, R. Lynn, T. Barrett, and J. Shield, Rising Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Children in the U.K., Diabetes Care, vol.30, issue.5, pp.1097-101, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/dc06-1813

N. Tubiana-rufi, E. Ramos, L. Bubuteishvili, D. Chevenne, C. Levy-marchal et al., Increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in a wide french pediatric cohort (abstract), Diabetes and Metabolism, vol.31, pp.1-18, 2005.

J. Rotteveel, E. Belksma, C. Renders, R. Hirasing, and H. Delemarre-van-de-waal, Type 2 diabetes in children in the Netherlands: the need for diagnostic protocols, European Journal of Endocrinology, vol.157, issue.2, pp.175-80, 2007.
DOI : 10.1530/EJE-06-0754

E. Rhodes, L. Laffel, T. Gonzalez, and D. Ludwig, Accuracy of Administrative Coding for Type 2 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults, Diabetes Care, vol.30, issue.1, pp.141-144, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/dc06-1142

C. Ogden, M. Carroll, L. Curtin, M. Mcdowell, C. Tabak et al., Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004, JAMA, vol.295, issue.13, pp.1549-55, 1999.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.295.13.1549

M. Rolland-cachera, K. Castetbon, N. Arnault, F. Bellisle, M. Romano et al., Body mass index in 7???9-y-old French children: frequency of obesity, overweight and thinness, International Journal of Obesity, vol.26, issue.12, pp.1610-1616, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802146

Z. Bloomgarden, Type 2 Diabetes in the Young: The evolving epidemic, Diabetes Care, vol.27, issue.4, pp.998-1010, 2004.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.27.4.998

N. Bobo, A. Evert, J. Gallivan, G. Imperatore, J. Kelly et al., An update on type 2 diabetes in youth from the national diabetes education program, Pediatrics, vol.114, pp.259-63, 2004.

J. Oeltmann, A. Liese, H. Heinze, C. Addy, and E. Mayer-davis, Prevalence of Diagnosed Diabetes Among African-American and Non-Hispanic White Youth, 1999, Diabetes Care, vol.26, issue.9, pp.2531-2536, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.26.9.2531

C. Druet, M. Dabbas, V. Baltakse, C. Payen, B. Jouret et al., Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in obese French children, Clinical Endocrinology, vol.49, issue.6, pp.672-680, 2006.
DOI : 10.1067/mpd.2000.105141

M. Goran, R. Bergman, Q. Avila, M. Watkins, G. Ball et al., Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Reduced ??-Cell Function in Overweight Latino Children with a Positive Family History for Type 2 Diabetes, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.89, issue.1, pp.207-219, 2004.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2003-031402

M. Wabitsch, H. Hauner, M. Hertrampf, R. Muche, B. Hay et al., Type II diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in Caucasian children and adolescents with obesity living in Germany, International Journal of Obesity, vol.28, pp.307-320, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802555

R. Weiss, S. Dufour, S. Taksali, W. Tamborlane, K. Petersen et al., Prediabetes in obese youth: a syndrome of impaired glucose tolerance, severe insulin resistance, and altered myocellular and abdominal fat partitioning, The Lancet, vol.362, issue.9388, pp.951-958, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14364-4

S. Wiegand, U. Maikowski, O. Blankenstein, H. Biebermann, P. Tarnow et al., Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in European children and adolescents with obesity -- a problem that is no longer restricted to minority groups, European Journal of Endocrinology, vol.151, issue.2, pp.199-206, 2004.
DOI : 10.1530/eje.0.1510199

A. Fagot-campagna, J. Saaddine, K. Flegal, and G. Beckles, Diabetes, Impaired Fasting Glucose, and Elevated HbA1c in U.S. Adolescents: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.5, pp.834-841, 2001.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.24.5.834

A. Drake, A. Smith, P. Betts, E. Crowne, and J. Shield, Type 2 diabetes in obese white children, Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.86, issue.3, pp.207-215, 2002.
DOI : 10.1136/adc.86.3.207

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1719113

P. Czernichow and N. Tubiana-rufi, Emergence of type 2 diabetes in French children, Bull Acad Natl Med, vol.188, pp.1443-51, 2004.

S. Ehtisham, J. Kirk, A. Mcevilly, N. Shaw, S. Jones et al., Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children in Birmingham, BMJ, vol.322, p.1428, 2001.

A. Moran, D. Jacobs, . Jr, J. Steinberger, C. Hong et al., Insulin resistance during puberty: results from clamp studies in 357 children, Diabetes, vol.48, issue.10, pp.2039-2083, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.48.10.2039

D. Pettitt and W. Knowler, Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment, birth weight, and breast-feeding in Pima Indians, Diabetes Care, vol.21, issue.2, pp.138-179, 1998.

D. Dabelea, R. Hanson, R. Lindsay, D. Pettitt, G. Imperatore et al., Intrauterine exposure to diabetes conveys risks for type 2 diabetes and obesity: a study of discordant sibships, Diabetes, vol.49, issue.12, pp.2208-2219, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.49.12.2208

E. Sobngwi, P. Boudou, F. Mauvais-jarvis, H. Leblanc, G. Velho et al., Effect of a diabetic environment in utero on predisposition to type 2 diabetes, The Lancet, vol.361, issue.9372, pp.1861-1866, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13505-2

D. Barker, C. Hales, C. Fall, O. C. Phipps, K. Clark et al., Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth, Diabetologia, vol.340, issue.1, pp.62-69, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00399095

C. Levy-marchal and P. Czernichow, Small for Gestational Age and the Metabolic Syndrome: Which Mechanism Is Suggested by Epidemiological and Clinical Studies?, Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol.65, issue.3, pp.123-153, 2006.
DOI : 10.1159/000091517

H. Lithell, P. Mackeigue, L. Berglund, R. Mohsen, U. Lithell et al., Relation of size at birth to non-insulin dependent diabetes and insulin concentrations in men aged 50-60 years, BMJ, vol.312, issue.7028, pp.406-416, 1996.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.312.7028.406

R. Valdez, M. Athens, G. Thompson, B. Bradshaw, and M. Stern, Birthweight and adult health outcomes in a biethnic population in the USA, Diabetologia, vol.15, issue.6, pp.624-655, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00403383

S. Arslanian, Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Clinical Aspects and Risk Factors, Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol.57, issue.1, pp.19-28, 2002.
DOI : 10.1159/000053308

E. Sellers and H. Dean, Diabetic ketoacidosis: a complication of type 2 diabetes in Canadian aboriginal youth, Diabetes Care, vol.23, issue.8, pp.1202-1206, 2000.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.23.8.1202

H. Yokoyama, M. Okudaira, T. Otani, A. Sato, J. Miura et al., Higher incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 than in type 1 diabetes in early-onset diabetes in Japan Higher prevalence of elevated albumin excretion in youth with type 2 than type 1 diabetes: The search for diabetes in youth study, Kidney Int Diabetes Care, vol.5830, pp.302-313, 2000.

M. Eppens, M. Craig, J. Cusumano, S. Hing, A. Chan et al., Prevalence of Diabetes Complications in Adolescents With Type 2 Compared With Type 1 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.29, issue.6, pp.1300-1306, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/dc05-2470

H. Yokoyama, M. Okudaira, T. Otani, H. Takaike, J. Miura et al., Existence of Early-Onset NIDDM Japanese Demonstrating Severe Diabetic Complications, Diabetes Care, vol.20, issue.5, pp.844-851, 1997.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.20.5.844

G. Dahlquist, S. Bennich, and B. Kallen, Intrauterine growth pattern and risk of childhood onset insulin dependent (type I) diabetes: population based case-control study, BMJ, vol.313, issue.7066, pp.1174-1181, 1996.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.313.7066.1174

S. Cook, M. Weitzman, P. Auinger, M. Nguyen, and W. Dietz, Prevalence of a Metabolic Syndrome Phenotype in Adolescents, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol.157, issue.8, pp.821-828, 1988.
DOI : 10.1001/archpedi.157.8.821

N. Gungor, T. Thompson, K. Sutton-tyrrell, and J. Janosky, Early Signs of Cardiovascular Disease in Youth With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol.28, issue.5, pp.1219-1240, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.28.5.1219

L. Dolan, J. Bean, D. 'alessio, D. Cohen, R. Morrison et al., Frequency of Abnormal Carbohydrate Metabolism and Diabetes in a Population-based Screening of Adolescents, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.146, issue.6, pp.751-759, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.045

C. Druet, V. Baltakse, M. Dabbas, C. Payen, S. Dorgeret et al., Troubles de la tolérance au glucose chez les enfants obèses, Diabetes and Metab, vol.31, issue.suppl1, p.73, 2005.

A. Ladra, J. Daures, D. Morin, S. Lacombe, D. Vale et al., Registre régional Languedoc-Roussillon du diabète de l'enfant (Pediab-LR) ? données, Diabetes Metab, vol.33, p.117, 2000.

M. Grabert, F. Schweiggert, and R. Holl, A framework for diabetes documentation and quality management in Germany: 10 years of experience with DPV, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol.69, issue.2, pp.115-136, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-2607(02)00035-4

K. Schwab, J. Doerfer, W. Hecker, J. Grulich-henn, D. Wiemann et al., Spectrum and Prevalence of Atherogenic Risk Factors in 27,358 Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Cross-sectional data from the German diabetes documentation and quality management system (DPV), Diabetes Care, vol.29, issue.2, pp.218-243, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.29.02.06.dc05-0724

A. Herbst, O. Kordonouri, K. Schwab, F. Schmidt, and R. Holl, Impact of Physical Activity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children With Type 1 Diabetes: A multicenter study of 23,251 patients, Diabetes Care, vol.30, issue.8, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/dc06-2636

A. Herbst, C. Roth, A. Dost, R. Fimmers, and R. Holl, Rate of hypoglycaemia and insulin dosage in children during the initial therapy of type 1 diabetes mellitus, European Journal of Pediatrics, vol.35, issue.10, pp.633-641, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00431-005-1723-y

A. Icks, J. Rosenbauer, B. Haastert, W. Rathmann, M. Grabert et al., Direct Costs of Pediatric Diabetes Care in Germany and Their Predictors, Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes, vol.112, issue.06, pp.302-311, 2004.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2004-820909

A. Icks, J. Rosenbauer, K. Strassburger, M. Grabert, G. Giani et al., Persistent social disparities in the risk of hospital admission of paediatric diabetic patients in Germany-prospective data from 1277 diabetic children and adolescents, Diabetic Medicine, vol.365, issue.4, pp.440-442, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17867-2

T. Kapellen, B. Heidtmann, J. Bachmann, R. Ziegler, M. Grabert et al., Indications for insulin pump therapy in different age groups?an analysis of 1567 children and adolescents, Diabetic Medicine, vol.29, issue.8, pp.836-878, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.25.3.593

I. Knerr, J. Wolf, T. Reinehr, R. Stachow, M. Grabert et al., The ???accelerator hypothesis???: relationship between weight, height, body mass index and age at diagnosis in a large cohort of 9,248 German and Austrian children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.Suppl. 3, pp.2501-2505, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-005-0033-2

V. Wagner, J. Rosenbauer, M. Grabert, and R. Holl, Severe hypoglycemia, metabolic control, and diabetes management in young children with type 1 diabetes using insulin analogs???a follow-up report of a large multicenter database, European Journal of Pediatrics, vol.164, issue.2, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00431-007-0446-7

S. Nordly, H. Mortensen, A. Andreasen, N. Hermann, and T. Jorgensen, Factors associated with glycaemic outcome of childhood diabetes care in Denmark, Diabetic Medicine, vol.425, issue.11, pp.1566-73, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199702)14:2<153::AID-DIA318>3.0.CO;2-K

T. Danne, H. Mortensen, P. Hougaard, H. Lynggaard, H. Aanstoot et al., Persistent Differences Among Centers Over 3 Years in Glycemic Control and Hypoglycemia in a Study of 3,805 Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes From the Hvidore Study Group, Diabetes Care, vol.24, issue.8, pp.1342-1349, 2001.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.24.8.1342

M. Svensson, L. Nystrom, S. Schon, and G. Dahlquist, Age at Onset of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes and the Development of End-Stage Renal Disease: A nationwide population-based study, Diabetes Care, vol.29, issue.3, pp.538-580, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.29.03.06.dc05-1531

S. Nordly, T. Jorgensen, A. Andreasen, N. Hermann, and H. Mortensen, Quality of diabetes management in children and adolescents in Denmark, Diabetic Medicine, vol.88, issue.7, pp.568-74, 2003.
DOI : 10.1515/JPEM.1999.12.1.31

G. Joner, L. Stene, and O. Sovik, Nationwide, Prospective Registration of Type 1 Diabetes in Children Aged <15 Years in Norway 1989-1998: No increase but significant regional variation in incidence, Diabetes Care, vol.27, issue.7, pp.1618-1640, 2004.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.27.7.1618

L. Stene and G. Joner, Atopic disorders and risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in individuals, Clinical <html_ent glyph="@amp;" ascii="&"/> Experimental Allergy, vol.23, issue.1, pp.201-207, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04067-8

L. Stene, P. Magnus, R. Lie, O. Sovik, and G. Joner, No Association between Preeclampsia or Cesarean Section and Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes among Children: A Large, Population-Based Cohort Study, Pediatric Research, vol.34, issue.4, pp.487-90, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00405087

D. Block, C. , D. Leeuw, I. , V. Gaal et al., High prevalence of manifestations of gastric autoimmunity in parietal cell antibody-positive type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The Belgian diabetes registry, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.84, pp.4062-4069, 1999.

F. Gorus, The importance of diabetes registries and clinical biology for the study and treatment of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg, vol.58, pp.539-86, 1996.

F. Gorus, C. Vandewalle, H. Dorchy, P. Van-crombrugge, F. Schuit et al., Influence of age on the associations among insulin autoantibodies, islet cell antibodies, and HLA DAQ1*0301-DQB1*0302 in siblings of patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Belgian diabetes registry, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.78, pp.1172-1180, 1994.

DOI : 10.1007/s001250050929

DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68314-1

B. Van-der-auwera, C. Van-waeyenberge, F. Schuit, H. Heimberg, C. Vandewalle et al., DRB1*0403 Protects Against IDDM in Caucasians With the High-Risk Heterozygous DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302/DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 Genotype, Diabetes, vol.44, issue.5, pp.527-557, 1995.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.44.5.527

B. Van-der-auwera, F. Schuit, I. Weets, A. Ivens, J. Van-autreve et al., Relative and absolute HLA-DQA1-DQB1 linked risk for developing type I diabetes before 40 years of age in the Belgian population: implications for future prevention studies, Human Immunology, vol.63, issue.1, pp.40-50, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00362-7

C. Vandewalle, A. Falorni, S. Svanholm, A. Lernmark, D. Pipeleers et al., High diagnostic sensitivity of glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with clinical onset between age 20 and 40 years. The Belgian diabetes registry, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.80, pp.846-51, 1995.

P. Mckinney, R. Parslow, K. Gurney, G. Law, H. Bodansky et al., Perinatal and neonatal determinants of childhood type 1 diabetes. A case-control study in Yorkshire, U.K, Diabetes Care, vol.22, issue.6, pp.928-960, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.6.928

R. Feltbower, F. Campbell, H. Bodansky, C. Stephenson, and P. Mckinney, Insulin pump therapy in childhood diabetes-cost implications for Primary Care Trusts, Diabetic Medicine, vol.28, issue.1, pp.86-95, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2004.01359.x

R. Feltbower, P. Mckinney, H. Bodansky, R. Feltbower, P. Mckinney et al., Rising incidence of childhood diabetes is seen at all ages and in urban and rural settings in Yorkshire, United Kingdom Type 1 diabetes in Yorkshire, UK: Time trends in 0-14 and 15- 29-year-olds, age at onset and age-period-cohort modelling, Diabetologia Diabet Med, vol.4320, pp.682-686, 2000.

K. Kyvik, L. Nystrom, F. Gorus, M. Songini, J. Oestman et al., The epidemiology of Type 1 diabetes mellitus is not the same in young adults as in children, Diabetologia, vol.19, issue.3, pp.377-84, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/995

P. Mckinney, R. Parslow, K. Gurney, G. Law, H. Bodansky et al., Antenatal risk factors for childhood diabetes mellitus; a case-control study of medical record data in Yorkshire, UK, Diabetologia, vol.40, issue.8, pp.933-942, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250050770

R. Mcnally, R. Feltbower, L. Parker, H. Bodansky, F. Campbell et al., Space???time clustering analyses of type 1 diabetes among 0- to 29-year-olds in Yorkshire, UK, Diabetologia, vol.14, issue.5, pp.900-904, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0895(199803)14:1<31::AID-DMR201>3.0.CO;2-A

R. Parslow, P. Mckinney, G. Law, A. Staines, R. Williams et al., Incidence of childhood diabetes mellitus in Yorkshire, northern England, is associated with nitrate in drinking water: an ecological analysis, Diabetologia, vol.40, issue.5, pp.550-556, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250050714

J. Tuomilehto, R. Lounamaa, E. Tuomilehto-wolf, A. Reunanen, E. Virtala et al., Epidemiology of childhood diabetes mellitus in Finland ? background of a nationwide study of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, Diabetologia, vol.33, issue.Suppl 1, pp.70-76, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00400854

M. Karvonen, J. Rusanen, M. Sundberg, E. Virtala, A. Colpaert et al., Regional Differences in the Incidence of Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus among Children in Finland from 1987 to 1991, Annals of Medicine, vol.35, issue.4, pp.297-304, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00400261

M. Karvonen, J. Tuomilehto, E. Virtala, J. Pitkaniemi, A. Reunanen et al., Seasonality in the Clinical Onset of Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Finnish Children, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.143, issue.2, pp.167-76, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008726

N. Lammi, O. Taskinen, E. Moltchanova, I. Notkola, J. Eriksson et al., A high incidence of type 1 diabetes and an alarming increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes among young adults in Finland between 1992 and 1996, Diabetologia, vol.368, issue.Suppl 1, pp.1393-400, 1992.
DOI : 10.3928/0090-4481-19990901-11

E. Moltchanova, A. Penttinen, and M. Karvonen, A hierarchical Bayesian birth cohort analysis from incomplete registry data: evaluating the trends in the age of onset of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (T1DM), Statistics in Medicine, vol.22, issue.19, pp.2989-3004, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/clinids/7.2.207

S. Muntoni, M. Karvonen, S. Muntoni, and J. Tuomilehto, Seasonality of birth in patients with type 1 diabetes, The Lancet, vol.359, issue.9313, p.1246, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08227-2

Z. Padaiga, J. Tuomilehto, M. Karvonen, G. Dahlquist, T. Podar et al., Seasonal variation in the incidence of Type 1 diabetes mellitus during 1983 to 1992 in the countries around the Baltic Sea, Diabetic Medicine, vol.9, issue.9, pp.736-779, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s001250050074

T. Podar, P. Onkamo, T. Forsen, M. Karvonen, E. Tuomilehto-wolf et al., Neonatal anthropometric measurements and risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. DiMe Study Group, Diabetes Care, vol.22, issue.12, pp.2092-2096, 1999.
DOI : 10.2337/diacare.22.12.2092a

T. Podar, A. Solntsev, M. Karvonen, Z. Padaiga, G. Brigis et al., Increasing incidence of childhood-onset Type I diabetes in 3 Baltic countries and Finland 1983???1998, Diabetologia, vol.44, issue.S3, pp.17-20, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00002947

M. Rytkonen, E. Moltchanova, J. Ranta, O. Taskinen, J. Tuomilehto et al., The incidence of type 1 diabetes among children in Finland???rural???urban difference, Health & Place, vol.9, issue.4, pp.315-340, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1353-8292(02)00064-3

. Haute-autorité-de-santé, La prise en charge du diabète : diabète de type 1 de l'enfant et de l'adolescent, pp.1-23, 2006.

. Haute-autorité-de-santé, La prise en charge du diabète de type 1 chez l'enfant et l'adolescent : comprendre comment gérer sa santé avec un diabète de type 1, pp.1-8, 2006.