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Journal Articles (Review Article) Frontiers in Genetics Year : 2018

On the Importance of Host MicroRNAs During Viral Infection

Abstract

Every living organism has to constantly face threats from the environment and deal with a large number of pathogens against which it has to defend itself to survive. Among those, viruses represent a large class of obligatory intracellular parasites, which rely on their host machinery to multiply and propagate. As a result, viruses and their hosts have engaged in an ever-evolving arms race to be able to maintain their existence. The role played by micro (mi)RNAs in this ongoing battle has been extensively studied in the past 15 years and will be the subject of this review article. We will mainly focus on cellular miRNAs and their implication during viral infection in mammals. Thus, we will describe current techniques that can be used to identify miRNAs involved in the modulation of viral infection and to characterize their targets and mode of action. We will also present different reported examples of miRNA-mediated regulation of viruses, which can have a positive outcome either for the host or for the virus. In addition, the mode of action is also of a dual nature, depending on the target of the miRNA. Indeed, the regulatory small RNA can either directly guide an Argonaute protein on a viral transcript, or target a cellular mRNA involved in the host antiviral response. We will then see whether and how viruses respond to miRNA-mediated targeting. Finally, we will discuss how our knowledge of viral targeting by miRNA can be exploited for developing new antiviral therapeutic approaches
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hal-02294844 , version 1 (11-06-2024)

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Erika Girardi, Paula López, Sébastien Pfeffer. On the Importance of Host MicroRNAs During Viral Infection. Frontiers in Genetics, 2018, 9, pp.439. ⟨10.3389/fgene.2018.00439⟩. ⟨hal-02294844⟩
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