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The single-cell kinetics of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation after transplantation-the steady state and the effect of erythropoietin : the steady state and the effect of erythropoietin

Abstract : Hematopoietic cells are the most numerous cells in our body, and their overall short half-life requires their steady production. At the apex of the hematopoietic system resides a small number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) which give rise to all mature hematopoietic cell types through self-renewal and differentiation divisions. For long it was assumed that these HSC are a homogeneous population of multipotent cells. Technical advancements, which allowed to trace HSC at the single cell level, revealed however that single HSC behave differently with respect to the number of lineages and the relative amounts of different lineages they produce and are heterogeneous with respect to their long-term engraftment capacity. Notably different lineage restricted and biased cells, as well as cells with long-term and short-term engraftment potential have been identified in the HSC gate. One technique allowing the lineage tracing of single HSC is cellular barcoding, which relies on the introduction of an artificially created DNA fragment, the barcode, in the genome of HSCs through viral transfection. As these barcodes are transmitted to all daughter cells, the analysis of the barcode identity of progeny cells reveals which lineages and how much of each is produced by each individual HSCs.In this thesis we used a new cellular barcoding library to analyze how the different HSC subsets previously described interact and behave in the first six weeks after bulk transplantation, as well as the influence of erythropoietin (EPO) on this process. More in detail, we described the reconstitution kinetics of HSC in the myeloid (M; macrophage, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils), lymphoid (B-cells), dendritic cells, megakaryocyte and erythroid lineage (E; erythroblasts) at the single cell level. For the analysis of HSC differentiation towards the erythroid lineage we established the detection of cellular barcodes from RNA. We discovered that HSC clonal succession and clonal stability co-occur in the first weeks after transplantation, but are not evenly distributed over the different hematopoietic lineages. Notably the production of erythroid cells 2-weeks after transplantation was maintained by distinct short-lived HSC clones, while high myeloid cell production after transplantation was guaranteed by long-lived multi-outcome HSCs. In vitro EPO exposure of HSC before transplantation, did not change the overall lineage output of transplanted HSC, or HSC differentiation kinetics, lineage restrictions, and biases at the single cell level in the first six weeks after transplantation. However, after transplantation of EPO-exposed HSC long-lived unbiased multi-outcome HSCs lost preponderance with respect to cellular output. Rather, changing clones of two types of highly biased HSCs, myeloid-erythroid (ME)-biased and myeloid B-cell (MB)-biased HSC, produced now the majority (>60%) of erythroid, myeloid and B-cells. This effect was transient but stable over different EPO concentrations and after in vivo EPO treatment during transplantation. It suggests a functional compensation mechanism at work.We hope the detailed description of the engraftment kinetics of single control and EPO-exposed HSC after bulk transplantation will have relevance both for fundamental research and the clinics.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 27, 2020 - 5:34:32 PM
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Almut Eisele. The single-cell kinetics of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation after transplantation-the steady state and the effect of erythropoietin : the steady state and the effect of erythropoietin. Human health and pathology. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019PSLET040⟩. ⟨tel-03028817⟩

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